A Post-Racial America by Joseph Logan


The reason for this data and research study is to explore the relationships between finance education, diversity, and equity among various ethnicities. Characteristics of learning, comprehension, ideology, education, equity, and career are the main strategies approached in the data collected. The results are collected from a survey on Diversity, Equity, Inclusion. Academic resources are also used to discuss post racism ideology, where we are at as a community regarding diversity, equity, and inclusion. The differences in ethnic functioning in education, society and finance are subtopics of the data analyzed. The analyses were conducted on demographics, ethnicity, and finance. 

Questions are categorized by ethnicity so individual results independent of public generalization can be studied separately for each ethnic group.  Many survey takers echo the idea of a post racial society with the sediment of wanting to have equity and identifying with diversity in the education system. However, the survey reflects that we are not as diverse as we might think we are. The gaps in communication when it comes to higher education, demographics, finances, and beliefs indicate there is still a need for further progression to develop a more diverse and inclusive America. This academic journal shows that the cross communication between culture and race leave a disconnect in higher education and among community members. The research gives a clear implication, that equity is still disproportionate. Understanding where these flaws are within the system and the disconnections that lay in wait without resolution, can help to create social economic change by using the differences in the data collected to examine and reflect upon. Keywords: Equity, Diversity, Inclusion, Post racism, Social economics, Education and Communication.


The motive of this review is to analyze and evaluate the ideology of a Post-Racial America. Post-Racial is a term referring to a theoretical environment in which America is free from racial preference, discrimination, and prejudice. The word post-Racial has been widely used amongst race theory antagonists and politicians in recent years. Research collected from demographics, statistics, and socioeconomics’ through peer reviewed articles and survey questions will allow an in-depth look at this controversial topic. Results of the data will give readers a broader perspective into the truth about Post-Racial America and measure the idea against race, equity and diversity. 

Review of Literature

Theme 1: Post-Racism vs. Statistics and Policy 

Anyone who has ever experienced going through the American Justice System, understands the justice system cares more about the outcome than it does about justice. In other words, the system cares more about getting to the end than getting it right. For example, the extremities that we see being displayed in the news and on social media are a constant reminder, that injustice amongst minorities is often being supported and upheld by the political policies that are in place. Data from statistics on minority imprisonment, and equality is used to show the importance of correlating equity among the population in its current state. Although there has been some reform made to policy concerning the rights and freedoms of the people, the numbers show that the prison population is the highest in the world and dominated by African Americans, “of which 1 in 3 will go to prison during their lifetime” (Stevenson 28). “Much has been written were defense attorneys publicly stated that their clients should be executed, directed racial slurs at clients, or otherwise provided ineffective assistance of counsel (Stevenson 27). These types of incidents show no consideration of dignity on the part of justice, and lead to repugnant histrionic sentencing among minorities, especially African American male, female, and juveniles. 

Theme 2: Cities and Diversity

Race, equity, and diversity in urban areas is a topic of debate for many American citizens. The current news events dealing with the debate on teaching Race Theory in public schools has brought about the discussion of Post Racism and the weight the meaning of the words carry amongst some Americans. Although many Americans may not be in accordance with the term, many believe the teaching of such topics would be a setback and that progress made over the years has led to a more diverse American culture. 

During a recent rally, parents of different ethnic backgrounds urged board members to stop teaching Race Theory to their kids. In the book Silent Racism, Barbara Trepagnier refers to “a study that exposes racism hidden in the not racist category in the process of demonstrating racism being shaped by language that distorts the racial reality” (5). Although, in this instance Trepagnier is referring to the use of language to define the term silent racism. I argue that the term can also be used to describe the allocation of a particular race based on demographics. This is a conceptual and realistic measure that is overlooked when determining whether America has progressed when it comes to equity and diversity. Yes, it is true that we live in a more modern society in which people are more connected than ever regardless of the color of skin; however, systematically demographics give a broader perspective on the same problems our predecessors faced. Post racial maximalist subsides with people of color within the community who feel these are different times but fail to look at data surrounding the issue. The fact that citizens are sensitive to the idea of Race Theory being taught in the classroom shows that we have not matured as a nation as much as people would like to believe. Pager and Sheppard states, “Residential segregation by race remains a salient feature of contemporary American cities” (181-209). Acquiring statistics such as those by Pager and Sheppard on socioeconomics in some of the US’s major cities gives us a deeper look into the least and most diverse cities of American society. 

Theme 3: Race economics, diversity, and inclusion in the education system 

  Universities around the world are now functioning as a business for financial gain. Exclusive Ivy League colleges, along with highly nationally ranked Universities in the country institutions that only accommodate a selective few. In turn this reflects on race status and higher education in the US. Stevenson, Burke, and Whelan put it this way in their article “Teaching in Higher Education” when they write, “It is now widely recognized that the colonization of the academic life by global capital’s instrumental, market-driven rationality has commodified the production and dissemination of knowledge.” The industrialization of colleges around the country is an important determining factor when considering the evolution of equity amongst Americans. Looking at who and why students can or cannot get a post-secondary education is a primary factor that plays a heavy roll in the education system. At first glance it may seem that equity in the education system is on the rise. According to Alon and Tienda, “More grant funding and higher enrollment rates for minorities” shows movement on the topic of inclusion. (732-736) However, these numbers can be misleading also making for a double edge sword when it comes to equity and diversity in higher education. The Evolution of Class Inequality in Higher Education denotes this in a statement relating to trends in college pricing from 2005 (732-736). “Not surprisingly, the two most noteworthy trends in the context of postsecondary education since the 1980’s are escalating college tuition and an inflated emphasis on standardized test scores in admission practices. Both changes restrict access to selective institutions and magnify qualitative differences.” (732-736)


Survey data used for the analysis of this academic paper was collected on SurveyMonkey. The survey is made up of ten questions and posted to on October 6, 2021. The survey was completed on October 27, 2021. Forty respondents participated in the survey. The survey link was given to instructors and students attending Pikes Peak Community College and posted to a community page on a social media site. The surveyors were compiled of business owners, instructors, and students. Survey questions were deliberately divided up into a minority group (social media outlet), college instructors, and college students to receive an even number of responses from ethnic and non-ethnic groups. Responses were mixed with some surveyors responding with a scale degree instead of a full explanation of the question asked. To complete the analysis, coding was used to interpret the greater response and perspective of the survey replies.  Anonymity was used to give confidence and freedom to the survey respondents. Demographics on school, work-life and neighborhood was requested to give allocation and prominence to the questions asked. Responses were all completed online. Questions gave reflection on race, education, academic learning, income, and ideology.       


Demographic information requested was based on race, income, diversity in school, work, or local neighborhood. The significance of the demographic information is to allocate specific ideology among the survey respondents. The focus being on diversity in education, career finance and belief among the participants who took part in the survey. The respondents of the survey collected was compiled of about 50/50 when taking race into account, with 48 percent being minority and 52 percent being Caucasian. This almost even number of respondents by race allowed for a clear perspective amongst the ideology of each race. Any person from the community could respond to this study. Categories were broken down into 5 groups: African American, Latino, Multi-racial, Other, and Caucasian. The intent here was to have a closer look at the relationship between linguistics in education among minorities compared to Caucasians. The purpose of the study is to research finance, job security, education and beliefs on diversity equity and inclusion among the community. Implications of equality, equity, diversity, and inclusion are often measured against historical perception instead of present data collected on institutions, finance, education, housing, and wellbeing. 

Quantitative/Qualitative Responses

Questions were broken down into quantitative and qualitative sections to group responses and give clarity on their position concerning diversity, equity, and inclusion. Questions that were associated with a respondent’s belief on the question could be answered by a scale on a degree of 1-10. For example. “How diverse is your school on a scale of 1-10?” (Logan Survey Monkey). The questions asked in the survey are veered towards ethnicity and current beliefs on diversity in the field of education, career, finance and community amongst the public. It is important to quantify the number of survey takers with responses being grouped by race. The idea being that data can be concluded on a non-bias bases given that each participant is only asked their personal reflection and not given any data on which to make a conclusive decision concerning these questions. This gives an indication of general ideology on the topic of Post-Racism, equity, diversity, and inclusion and allows the researcher to measure these ideas against data collected from academic resources on diversity, equity, finance, and equality.


(Ethnicity) Identifies groups respondents according to race. From the survey analysis 48 percent were white while 52 percent were minorities. The minority categories were broken down into 4 categories of which 15 percent is African American. Latino made up 15 percent, Other at 16 percent, and multi-racial made up roughly 12 percent. Scale questions ranged in number from 1-10. Questions were given coding based on diversity in the correlating field.

(Neighborhood Diversity) How racially diverse is your neighborhood on a scale of 1-10? (School Diversity) How diverse is your school on a scale of 1-10? (Academic Curriculum Diversity) How diverse do you feel your academic curriculum is on a scale of 1-10? For example, do you feel that what you are learning about is inclusive of diverse races, cultures, etc.? Quantitative questions are asked to give a deeper look into the belief, ideology, social economic, education and financial stature.

(Equal Education and Work after Graduation) In what ways do you feel the education you are receiving equally and efficiently supports the ability of all people, regardless of race or culture, to work and live after graduation? 70 percent of all Caucasian respondents indicated that there was equal opportunity for college graduates regardless of race. While 80 percent of African Americans agreed. That was also very apparent with Latinos at 99 percent. 86 percent of all multi-racial and 100 percent of others were in accordance with there being equal opportunity for work after graduation. Analysis from survey reflects that work opportunity after education is equal and inclusive.

(Academic Comprehension) Amongst Caucasians academic comprehension was at 90 percent with the majority having no problem at all while 88 percent of African Americans found academic comprehension to be very difficult or difficult to understand. 78 percent of Latinos found that academic comprehension is VD while 25 percent of multi- racial respondents and 25 percent of others found that academic comprehension was difficult to understand. Overall, the majority of non-Caucasian found that academic comprehension is not difficult. How difficult is it to understand the academic language used by your instructors and the literature provided in your books, articles, handouts etc.?

(Job while in school) What job do you have while going to school, if any? 60 percent of white participants in college hold jobs. 100 percent of African Americans Latino, multi-racial and others all hold jobs while attending school.

(Influenced college education) What was your decision to go to a community college influenced by? 100 percent of white respondents who answered the survey were influenced by (0 cost). There reason for attending is that they don’t have to pay for it. While 20 percent of African Americans were influenced by 0 cost 65 percent say they are influenced by (FH) Financial hardship and 15 percent influenced by friends and family. 75 percent of Latinos were influenced by FH while 25 percent were influenced by friends and family. 100 percent of multi-racial, and others were influenced by friends and family.

(Academic Support) What people in your community and inner circle support your academic journey? 100 percent of all white respondents say yes that they were supported by (F.F) friends and family and the community. 100 percent of the African American community say that they have been supported by friends and family as well as the surrounding community. While only 75 percent of Latinos say they are supported by friends and family and community, 25 percent of the Latino community says that they have (NS) no support at all. 100 percent of multi-racial and 100 percent of others say they are supported by friends and family as well as the community. (Over/Under 50K) Do you believe graduating college will land you a job that makes $50,000 or more per year? 80 percent of white respondents believed they would make more than 50,000 dollars after graduating from college. While 75 percent of African Americans felt they would make more than 50k. While only 50 percent of Latinos feel they will make more than 50k. 75 percent of multi-racial and 50 percent of others believed they would make more than 50k. Others are the representation for any other race outside of the survey scope who completed the survey but do not fall into any of the main categories. 

Inequality in economics, education and other social domains has found renewed interest in modern day America. From the enslavement of African Americans to the emancipation of them, from the genocide of Native Americans to woman’s rights to vote and the civil rights movement, America has experienced decades of inequality. Still today, the problems persist with affirmative action, Dreamers, LGBTQ, Black lives movement and Race Theory. America is filled with national heroes and iconic figures, who along the way fought for the rights and values of all Americans. How, why, when and where are detrimental to the development and evolution of a country whose ideology stands for justice, equality liberty for all and the pursuit of happiness. Although, the fundamentals, and ideology of the American dream are a model for which the entire world is to follow. Contemporary forms of discrimination, and racism persist in American culture and continue to be an ugly mark on the integrity of the United States. This article reviews the relevant issues on inequality, race, education and diversity through demographics that provide a roadmap for readers to have a more precise look into Post-Racism. The reality behind the idea and the furtherment of diversity, equity, and inclusion for American culture. Post-Racism is a utopian idea that is currently based in fantasy more than reality. As a country equality among men may only be a target for humanity to aim at. However, it cannot be achieved without integrity and a realistic view at such injurious factors.  A survey on this topic taken by scholars, students and community members, are contributing factors, into the proficiencies of the education system and the equality of the social structure, outlined by the American Government. As a writer, freedom fighter, and civil rights enthusiasts my goal in this research paper is to question, evaluate, and give perspective on the topic of Post Racism in America. 


Research topic: Diversity, Segregation, and Equity in Modern America

Research Questions: What will quantitative data contribute? Why is quantitative data the best method for these types of studies? How is knowledge produced? What can I know? What is the definition of Diversity and Equity? Does research data give academic insight to what we perceive to be diversity, and equity? What makes a study ethical? Does post racism and equity exist in the U.S.? 

Being a person of mixed race makes me both an insider and an outsider at the same time. I am a Biracial college student currently living in Colorado. I was born in the South and lived there until the age of twelve. This is important because it coincides with the research I will be presenting. In the article “When Interviewing: How Many Is Enough,” anecdotal evidence is seen as an essential factor in this type of research and well noted in an article about qualitative research and the importance of the researcher having experience in the topic, they are doing research on: “We can say that qualitative findings will be externally valid for situations similar to the one in which the study was conducted” (Cobern and Adams 75).

The South has deep roots and a history of its culture dating the Civil War and is relevant to how far we have come, concerning diversity and equity as nation. Living along the southeastern coast of the U.S. gave me the opportunity to experience this what Southern life is like up close. Life in the North to this day is quite different from that of the South. Experiencing point of views from both places allows for anecdotal evidence as well as academic evidence concerning this topic. This research paper is about equity inclusion, diversity, and segregation. The data collected on demographics in education, finances, career, and cultural wellbeing will give true perspective on systematic discrimination and whether post racism exists. I hope to achieve balance in the way this topic is portrayed on billboards, distributed by politicians, presented by strategic media and educational institutions. Writing this academic research paper from the numbers allocated for each finding will give readers a clearer picture before considering a position on the question of post-racism in America. Using this type of data provides gives proper perspective, as to where we are, when it comes to the topics of diversity, equity inclusion and segregation. This is a non-biased approach to what may be considered a post-racial America in modern society.

As an adult looking back on my personal life, there were many facets of life that I recognized as being out of place. I could not make sense of what or why until I got older and had the ability to analyze the place, times, and circumstances that surrounded the things I felt deep down did not sit right with me. Children might not grasp certain situations to the full extent, but there is still a keen sense that tells them when something is not right. It could be the feeling of uncertainty that over comes the self when a situation occurs where someone is biased towards another person based on the color of their skin. The implied feeling that a child gets when seeing someone threatened for no apparent reason is one that causes fear and sadness. 

The knowledge received from the setting and location in a community neighborhood as opposed to what is on the television or in the education system is based outside of the cultural norms of society. My research may or may not give an accurate depiction of what is a post-racial American society due to the number of surveyors surveyed. Despite how many participants that are included in the research paper. My goal for the research is to show the readers enough insight into the topics that readers will think harder about how they are processing, analyzing, and utilizing information on the premises of what they hear, feel, or think they see in the world around them. In a recent academic article, “Research Note,” Lisa Slevitch quotes Putnam speaking in 1981 when she refers to the reason qualitative data is more inducive to studies based in humanity: “Because social reality is mind-dependent, it cannot be value-free or free from people’s point of views, interests, and purposes” (77). For these reasons, I have a responsibility to be ethical and honest in my findings. Furthermore, qualitative research is the generalization of the public’s view. Qualitative research is fine for deciding if taxpayers should be paying for middle school lunches, and toll roads, but not so much when measuring the progress and evolution of a country.


Introduction to the results: The intentions and analysis of research on equity, diversity, and inclusion as it relates to social economics in higher education is to study the transition of American society and reflect on the progress or stagnation of a post racial America. The data collected on ethnic ideology as it relates to the education system and the community gives a clear view on the way American culture sees diversity between minorities and Caucasians; though many may share the same views on what equity diversity and inclusion is, the results airs on the side of haughtiness when one analyzes the gaps in finance, communication, and overall wellbeing. 

Post-Racism and Education 

Race theory is a controversial subject. The debate on whether it is helpful or harmful has been one of discussion for some time. Many who agree with the ideology of post racism may look to the advancement of minorities as the general sentiment to support the idea of an American society free of racist generalizations. General sentiment among believers is that America has a diverse culture and the advancement of minorities in the 20th century is enough to support these ideas. Devah Pager and Hana Sheppard express this in their academic essay “The Sociology of Discrimination Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets” when Pager says. “Indeed, most white Americans believe that a black person today has the same chance at getting a job as an equally qualified white person, furthermore only a third believe that discrimination is an important reason for why blacks do worse than whites in income housing, and jobs (5). The outcome of the survey issued supported feelings of fairness and equity that supported these ideas. When asked if the education students receive equally and efficiently supports the ability of all people, regardless of race or culture, to work and live after graduation? One respondent of a minority group replied, “well that’s the great thing about America, you are able to freely and equally pursue your dreams.” While another Caucasian participant stated, “I will not subjectify myself to questions based on race stating that race is not a factor because we live in the greatest country in the world.” These comments that were made during the survey are patriotic and admirable but lead to misinformation when based outside the realm of tangible measures. This is expressed by Pager when she writes, “Rather than focusing on the attitudes or perceptions of actors that may be correlated with acts of discrimination. Data dependent on using large-scale datasets, researchers can identify systematic disparities between groups and chart their direction over time through detailed and systematic case studies” (7).

Diversity, Economics, Equity in relation to Education 

Analyzing the data created from the survey analysis revealed that over eighty percent of the participants regardless of race felt higher education is equal when it comes to having a diverse academic curriculum that is inclusive of race and culture. Tom1 , a participant in the survey, answered a question on fairness and cultural learning in the academic curriculum. He said that “education has nothing to do with race and equally supports all people because we are being taught what we need to do in our career path to succeed in life after graduation.” Ten percent of responders answered that they had not learned anything about other races and cultures while pursuing higher education, and the remaining ten percent stated that education is equal based off of the curriculum structure of the school system. As an example, observe the response of Douglas1 when he says, “education has allowed me to openly speak with my instructors, I feel well-supported in my learning and growth as a student. I am a minority, and I feel confident in my ability to succeed in my academics. I am excited for a promising future after graduation.” 

Interesting enough the sentiment remains the same throughout the survey when questioned on diversity and equal opportunity. People of all races and culture who participated feel as if the education they receive is equal and indicative of work life after graduation. However, when partakers of the survey were asked if they believed they would be able to land a job making over fifty thousand dollars a year only fifty percent of minorities believed it to be so, while eighty percent of Caucasians displayed a belief in making the earnings per year. Numbers established from the equity and diversity department at a local college indicated that minorities are dropping out of college at a much higher rate than their counterparts.

 During the survey participants were asked “how difficult is it to understand the academic language used by your instructors and the literature provided in your books, articles, handouts etc.?” Ninety percent of Caucasians who replied answered that they had zero difficulty understanding academic language. One of the surveyors who is an instructor commented on the academic language said academic language used can be confusing for students. “Teachers are instructed to provide background information, access student knowledge/experiences and explain concepts in a variety of ways, including using visual and hands on representations of concepts.” If instructors are using different types of methods to explain concepts, then why are students having a difficult time understanding? 

Could this be due to other pre-existing problems in relation to hardships, stress over finances, and/or external priorities that don’t allow for the dedication and focus it takes to earn a degree? Over sixty percent of people who went to school and participated in the survey worked during the time they attended, however one hundred percent of the minorities who contributed to the survey worked while attending. Of the minorities who attended a college seeking a degree, Latinos and African Americans stated the reason behind seeking a degree was due to financial hardship. Twenty five percent of surveyors were influenced by zero costs and ten percent were influenced by the military. 

Segregation and Systematic Social Economic Gaps

The miscorrelation between racism and discrimination is misrepresented and dis-associated from the underlying problems that still hinder minority advancement in the United States. Meghan M. O’Neil examines institutional discrimination in her article “Housing Policy, Race, Inequality, and Disparate Impact” describes it best when she writes, “segregation and institutional discrimination position minority groups at a disadvantage when it comes to educational attainment and income. Consequently, controlling for these types of factors could mediate racial disparities” (65). What does this survey analysis have to do with finance real-estate and in equality of minorities?  Disadvantages that systematically correlate to minorities such as higher dropout rates in education, lower paying jobs after graduation, devalued appraisal of property that reflect on race often gets swept under the rug when looked at on a case-by-case base. In this way systematic racism can be masked by discrimination disassociating it from the ugly underlying problem of racism that still persists in American culture on the national level. 

Even while the framework of social economics displays a correlation to inequality and equity of minorities through data collected on institutional education, finances, real estate, and monetary corporations around race. The advent of systematic racism goes overlooked. O’Neil identifies with this analogy when she writes, real estate agents and banks follow practices which categorically exclude, harm, or disadvantage minorities (55). A deeper look at analytics of financial institutions in correlation to real-estate and serves as a focal point in O’Neil’s research paper constitutes that institutions are being discriminative towards minorities, when they write about the topic saying, “The maintenance of separate and unequal neighborhoods for whites and minorities by encouraging the practices of lending only to applicants whose race matched that of the neighborhood, steering minorities out of white communities, enabling white flight, limiting investment into or red-lining minority neighborhoods, and statistical discrimination towards communities of color” (55).

 I argue that the same sentiment can be viewed as systematic racism and that the distinction between discrimination and racism need to be clear if white America truly values the liberties that are written into the declaration of independence written and truly want to move on from its ugly past. O’Neil seconds this motion when quoting from Desmond and Western when writing that, poverty and intergenerational wealth disparities are multidimensional and a matter of “justice” not merely economics (O’Neil 2018).


Results were mixed. In hindsight questions that are built around family environment, upbringing, and finances as a household may have given a better indication of the gaps that we face with diversity equity and inclusion. Furthermore, results from questions built around culture upbringing and family as opposed to numbers and area by a particular race would give a more direct indication of how finance and culture is playing a role in these areas. As an outliner questions that strictly rely on a race and a number show where a problem might exist but not necessarily where the problem stems from. When recording and analyzing the data. I found that respondents that had hardships and communication issues were mostly made up of minorities. This implicated that more minorities were more likely to have a tougher path than their compadres, but the data did not give any incite on why. Was there more than one income in the household? Did respondents have other responsibilities that were higher priorities than school? What were the struggles/hurdles that respondents must overcome to achieve success and how does that translate to better education and more tangible ways of living with in our society? 


One of the disappointing things that stood out when doing the research data on equity, diversity, education, and inclusion is the number of participants that responded entirely to the proposed questions. Some of the respondents chose to use a number scale to questions that required further elaboration. As a researcher the challenge of writing an informative journal for the purpose of educating and study, is to write from a non-bias approach. The ability to write an ethical paper without having a prospective is more challenging then the first onset. After having an opportunity to write and reflect on the data. There are a few things that stand out about my approach. The most important being the approach to the questions in the survey. I chose to ask questions that were based around diversity and race that reflected on demographics in the area or environment in which they lived. 


Understanding the disconnection between student, teacher, employee, employer, mentor, sibling, peace officer judge, or any civil worker within a society could be a result of the area in which a respondent grew up in or a result of living in a different environment than their counterparts or maybe be based on whether there was enough support financially to make for a comfortable approach to one’s life. Given research funds and time these are the questions I would further investigate with an emphasis on structural foundations and differences in a culture within different ethnic groups. A need case for the advancement of American diversity and equity is an important issue of debate. Published research and findings could help in determining how we can build a better America for its citizens.

Works Cited

Alon, Sigal. “The Evolution of Class Inequality in Higher Education: Competition, Exclusion, and Adaptation.” American Sociological Review, vol. 74, no. 5, [American Sociological Association, Sage Publications, Inc.], 2009, pp. 731–55, 

Gourlay, Leslie & Jacqueline Stevenson (2017) Teaching excellence in higher education: critical perspectives, Teaching in Higher Education, 22:4, 391-395, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2017.1304632 

Pager, Devah, and Hana Shepherd. “The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 34, no. 1, 2008, pp. 181–209.,  

Stevenson, Bryan. “Crime, Punishment, and Executions in the Twenty-First Century.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 147, no. 1, American Philosophical Society, 2003, pp. 24–29,